NewsVault Special Collection: The Fall of the Berlin Wall

Emerging from Allied control in 1955, West Germany developed into a democratic economic world leader and an eventual safeguard of the NATO alliance. By contrast, the Soviet Union enacted a Communist dictatorship on East Germany, symbolised by the Berlin Wall, built in 1961, to keep people from escaping to the West. Official figures show 200 people were killed attempting to cross the wall, although unofficial estimates are as high as 1,200.

Following the opening of Hungary's border with Austria in August 1989, the efforts of thousands of East German citizens to leave through Hungary sparked massive protests in all of East Germany's major cities. Rallying against the Communist regime and with the Berlin Wall falling on November 9th 1989, East and West Germany were reunified on October 3rd 1990 as a Federal Republic - adopting a single constitution and democratic system. Below, Gale NewsVault takes you through the story reported by British newspapers, as and when it happened.


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Search ‘Berlin Wall’ in entire document = 10,264 results
Search ‘Berlin Wall’ as keyword = 1996 results


Construction

Usage: Crossings and Conflict (1961-1989)

The Build-Up to the Fall: January-November 1989

The Fall (November 1989)

The Fall: The Aftermath (1989-1990)

The Fall: The Legacy (1990s and beyond)



Construction (from August 1961)

Search ‘Berlin’ AND ‘Wall’ AND ‘construction’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN August 1961 and December 1962 = 72 results

Title: U.S. TO STOP CLOSING OF BERLIN CROSSING
Details: The Times, 27 October 1961, pg. 12

Title: NEW BERLIN ANTI-TANK BARRIERS
Details: The Times, 20 November 1961, pg. 10

                                         
                                  ‘A Window on the World’, The Illustrated London News, 2 December 1961, pg. 963

Search ‘Berlin Wall’ as a Keyword, AFTER August 1961 = 1927 results

Title: THE WALL
Details: Punch, 25 October 1961, pg. 605

Title: TANKS GUARD GAPS IN BERLIN WALL
Details: The Daily Mail, 24 August 1961, pg. 1

Title: HOW THE WALL WENT UP IN 1961
Details: The Independent, 10 November 1989, pg. 8

Search ‘Berlin’ AND ‘Wall’ AND ‘Ulbricht’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN August 1961 and December 1961 = 32 results

Title: BUILD-UP IN BERLIN
Details: The Daily Mail, 19 August 1961, pg. 1

Title: THE BERLIN CRISIS
Details: The Financial Times, 29 August 1961, pg. 6

Search: ‘Brandenburg Gate’, as a Keyword, BETWEEN August 1961 and December 1961 = 12 results
Title: BERLIN TANKS WAIT
Details: The Daily Mail, 14 August 1961, pg. 1

Title: BRANDENBURG GATE CLOSED
Details: The Times, 15 August 1961, pg. 8

Title: K SEALS THE GATE
Details: The Daily Mail, 20 November 1961, pg. 1

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Usage: Crossings and Conflict (1961-1989)

Search: ‘Berlin Wall’ as a Keyword AND ‘death’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN August 1961 and December 1989 = 84 results

                                          
                                           ‘E. German Shot In Climbing The Wall’, The Times, 18 August 1962, pg. 5

Title: THE BERLIN WALL: TENSION INCREASES AND VIOLENCE BREAKS OUT
Details: The Illustrated London News, 25 August 1962, pg. 275

Title: WALL OF DEATH
Details: The Daily Mail, 16 November 1962, pg. 2

Title: FIVE-YEAR DEATH TOLL OF THE BERLIN WALL
Details: The Times, 12 August 1966, pg. 8

Search: ‘Berlin Wall’ AND ‘crossing’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN August 1961 and December 1989 = 244 results
Title: MORE E GERMAN REFUGEES CORSSING ZONAL BORDER
Details: The Times, 14 September 1961, pg. 10

Title: BERLIN BOMB TEARS GAP IN WALL
Details: The Times, 17 December 1962, pg. 8

Title: PRICE OF ADMISSION
Details: The Economist, 11 January 1964, pg. 105

                                         
                                     “’Murderers’ screams GI on the Wall’; The Daily Mail, 14 September 1964, pg. 2

Title: EAST GERMANS IN STORM OVER VISAS
Details: The Sunday Times, 1 June 1986, pg. 11

Search: ‘Berlin Wall’ as a Keyword AND ‘escape’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN August 1961 and November 1989 = 126 results
Title: STUDENTS BUILD MORE ESCAPE TUNNELS UNDER BERLIN WALL
Details: The Sunday Times, 30 September 1962, pg. 2

                                          
                                                      ‘Through the Wall!’,The Daily Mail, 20 December 1963, pg. 1

Title: SHARP FALL IN EAST GERMAN ESCAPES ACROSS THE BORDER
Details: The Financial Times, 14 December 1978, pg. 2

Title: LADDERS USED TO ESCAPE ACROSS THE BERLIN WALL
Details: The Times, 26 September 1980, pg. 4

Title: SHOTS FIRED AS TWO GO OVER BERLIN WALL
Details: The Daily Mail, 14 November 1986, pg. 10

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The Build-Up to the Fall: January-November 1989

Search: ‘Berlin Wall’ as a Keyword AND ‘tear’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN January 1989 and November 1989 = 13 results
Title: WEST TELLS RUSSIA: PULL DOWN THE WALL
Details: The Daily Mail, 18 January 1989, pg. 10

Title: SAVE THE CURTAIN
Details: Punch, 28 April 1989, pg. 17

Title:BUSH CALL TO TEAR DOWN THE BERLIN WALL
Details: The Times, 1 June 1989, pg. 1

Search: ‘Berlin Wall’ as a Keyword AND ‘demonstrat*’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN January 1989 and November 1989 = 25 results
Title: SHULTZ SAYS BERLIN WALL STILL BLOCKING PROGRESS ON RIGHTS
Details: The Times, 17 January 1989, pg. 8

Title: HONECKER, HARD MAN WHO BUILT BERLIN WALL, IS FORCED TO QUIT
Details: The Daily Mail, 19 October 1989, pg. 10

Search: ‘Berlin’ AND ‘division’ NOT ‘football’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN January 1989 and November 1989 = 240 results

                                         
                       ‘Reality behind the dream of German Unification’, The Independent, 17 January 1989, pg. 12


Title: TREADING THE GERMAN TIGHTROPE
Details: The Financial Times, 30 September 1989, pg. 1

Title: FORCES DIVIDING GERMANY ARE LOSING THEIR STRENGTH
Details: The Financial Times, 3 October 1989, pg. 23

Title: HUNDREDS HELD IN CRACKDOWN BY HONECKER
Details: The Times, 9 October 1989, pg. 1

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The Fall (November 1989)

Search: ‘Germany’ a Keyword AND ‘border’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN 9 November 1989 and 11 November 1989 = 24 results
Title: WHIRLWIND OF REVOLUTION
Details: The Daily Mail, 9 November 1989, pg. 6-7

Title: E GERMANY OPENS BORDERS
Details: Financial Times, 10 November 1989, pg. 1

Title: BERLIN WALL BREAKS OPEN
Details: The Independent, 10 November 1989, pg. 1

                                          
                                                ‘The Iron Curtain Torn Open’, The Times, 10 November 1989, pg. 1

Search: ‘Berlin’ AND ‘Wall’ AND ‘break’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN 9 November 1989 and 11 November 1989 = 9 results
Title: CHAMPAGNE CHARLIE
Details: The Daily Mail, 10 November 1989, pg. 1

Title: EUPHORIC EAST BERLINERS CELEBRATE THEIR NEW FREEDOM
Details: The Financial Times, 10 November 1989, pg. 2

Title: HITLER’S EUROPE FINALLY CRASHES TO DESTRUCTION
Details: The Independent, 11 November 1989, pg. 1

Search: ‘East Germany’ AND ‘open’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN 9 November 1989 and 11 November 1989 = 51 results
Title: LEFT TO PICK UP THE PIECES?
Details: The Times, 9 November 1989, pg. 11

Title: TROOPS TEAR HOLE IN BERLIN WALL
Details: The Financial Times, 11 November 1989, pg. 1

Title: BULLDOZERS MOVE IN TO BREACH BERLIN WALL
Details: The Independent, 11 November 1989, pg. 1

                                         
                                              'Hammering down the wall’, The Times, 11 November 1989, pg. 1

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The Fall: The Aftermath (1989-1990)

Search: ‘Germany’ as a Keyword AND ‘democracy’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN 11 November 1989 and December 1990 = 280 results
Title: TWO CHEERS FOR DEMOCRACY
Details: The Independent, 11 November 1989, pg. 16

Title: THATCHER AND KOHL TALK OF A ‘GREAT DAY FOR FREEDOM’
Details: The Times, 11 November 1989, pg. 5

Title: ONE VISION: ONE GERMANY
Details: The Sunday Times, 12 November 1989, pg. 1

                                         
                                       ‘A million march to freedom’, The Sunday Times, 12 November 1989, pg. 1

Title: BEYOND THE WALL
Details: The Economist, 18 November 1989, pg. 15

Search: ‘Germany’ as a Keyword AND ‘reunification’ AND ‘Europe’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN 11 November 1989 and May 1990 = 248 results
Title: MOSCOW OPPOSES GERMAN UNITY
Details: The Financial Times, 11 November 1989, pg. 1

Title: THE TOUGH CHOICES BRITAIN MUST MAKE
Details: The Daily Mail, 11 November 1989, pg. 8-9

Title: WIDENING THE CIRCLE OF EUROPE
Details: The Independent, 17 November 1989, pg. 19

Title: EUROPEAN LEADERS BACK GERMANY’S REUNIFICATION
Details: The Sunday Times, 10 December 1989, pg. 1

                                         
                                                   ‘Tomorrow belongs to whom?’, The Listener, 8 March 1990, pg. 4

Search: ‘Kohl’ as a Keyword AND ‘reunification’ in Entire Document, BETWEEN 11 November 1989 and May 1990 = 152 results
Title: A PASSIONATE KOHL ARGUES FOR EUROPE AND REUNIFICATION
Details: The Times, 14 November 1989, pg. 9

Title: KOHL FORCED TO RETREAT OVER GERMAN UNION
Details: The Daily Mail, 12 December 1989, pg. 10

Title: WAY TO UNITY IS CLEAR SAYS KOHL
Details: The Financial Times, 12 February 1990, pg. 1

Title: KOHL STRIKES HIGH-SPEED UNITY DEAL
Details: The Times, 7 March 1990, pg. 1
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The Fall: The Legacy (1990s and beyond)

Search: ‘Berlin Wall’ as a Keyword AND ‘memory’ in Entire Document, AFTER January 1990 = 29 results
Title: EASTERN DEMOCRACY REKINDLES PASSION FOR COMMUNISM
Details: The Times, 21 September 1993, pg. 12

Title: 1989: THE END OF THE CENTURY
Details: The Independent, 9 November 1994, pg. 17

Title: EAST GERMANY HAS NO REASON TO BE GRATEFUL
Details: The Independent on Sunday, 6 September 1998, pg. 26

                                          
                                     How Berlin plans to heal its scar’, The Financial Times, 29 April 2000, pg. 8

Title: BERLIN GETS A NEW WALL LEST THE CITY’S YOUNG FORGET
Details: The Times, 12 October 2004, pg. 14

Search: ‘Berlin Wall’ AND ‘anniversary’ as Keywords, AFTER January 1990 = 50 results
Title: BERLINERS DIVIDED OVER MEMORIAL SITE FOR VICTIMS OF WALL
Details: The Times, 14 August 1993, pg. 9

Title: ‘THE TRUTH IS, BERLINERS ARE STILL NOT TOGETHER’
Details: The Independent, 9 November 1994, pg. 23

Title: THE TEN-YEAR LEGACY OF EAST MEETS WEST
Details: The Financial Times, 6 November 1999, pg. 23

                                          
                            ‘Boost for Kohl as 100,000 celebrate in the rain’, The Times, 10 November 1999, pg. 19

Title: PROTESTS DISRUPT BERLIN WALL CEREMONY
Details: The Financial Times, 14 August 2001, pg. 5

Title: GERMANY STILL DIVIDED?
Details: The Independent, 27 June 2009, pg. 16

Search: ‘Berlin Wall’ as a Keyword AND ‘protest’ in Entire Document, AFTER January 1990 = 33 results
Title: DISGRUNTLED RESIDENTS LAMENT PASSING OF THE WALL
Details: The Times, 22 January 1991, pg. 9

                                          
                                      ‘Germany: A land more divided than ever’, The Daily Mail, 22 March 1991, pg. 6

Title: BERLIN PLEDGES NEVER TO FORGET ‘DEAR GORBY’
Details: The Times, 20 August 1991, pg. 4

Title: BERLIN WALL, SYMBOL OF PEACE THAT PREVENTED THE THIRD WORLD WAR
Details: The Daily Mail, 4 December 1992, pg. 10

Title: TEN YEARS THAT SHOOK THE WORLD
Details: The Independent on Sunday, 7 November 1999, n.p
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